“How abominable before God is the Empire or Rule of Wicked Woman, yea, of a traitress and bastard.” That’s the opening of John Knox’s 1558 diatribe The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women in which he explains that “To promote a Woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion or empire above any realm, nation or city is:
A. Repugnant to nature.
B. Contumely to God.
C. The subversion of good order, of all equity and justice.”
In fact, it’s not a multiple choice, all these are the correct answer.
He helpfully points out that “Woman in her greatest perfection was made to serve and obey man, not to rule and command him.”
How much has changed since, and how much do you know about it? Try the quiz to find out. If you’d like some help finding the answers, try the following:
DAC network on gender equality “the only international forum where experts from development co-operation agencies meet to define common approaches in support of gender equality and women’s empowerment.”
Social Institutions and Network Index (SIGI) “first launched by the OECD Development Centre in 2009 as an innovative measure of the underlying drivers of gender inequality for over 100 countries. Instead of measuring gender gaps in outcomes such as employment and education, the SIGI instead captures discriminatory social institutions”
0 of 15 questions completed
You’ll learn why the correct answer is correct if that’s the one you pick, but you may also learn something from an incorrect choice (other than it’s wrong).
You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again.
Quiz is loading...
You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz.
You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:
0 of 15 questions answered correctly
Time has elapsed
You have reached 0 of 0 points, (0)
International Women’s Day, Mother’s Day, Valentine’s Day, it’s all one to you, isn’t it?
You’re a manly man, or a womanly woman, and you think doing the dishes is a threat to manhood.
You think ladies should be treated well, but those women’s libbers are nothing but troublemakers.
If your son asked for a Barbie doll for his birthday, you’d refuse, not for the same reason as people who score less on the quiz, but because of this.
Question 1 of 15
If participation rates in the labour force for women were to reach those of men by 2030 in OECD countries, GDP would be boosted by:Correct
And inequalities exist even when they are in the labour force. In OECD countries men earn on average 16% more than women in similar full-time jobs. At the top of the pay scale, the gender gap is even higher, 21%, suggesting the continued presence of a glass ceiling. The average pay gap between men and women widens to 22% in families with one or more children. For couples without children, the gap is 7%. Overall the wage penalty for having children is on average 14%, with Japan and Korea showing the greatest gap, while Italy and Spain have almost none.
The impact of pay inequality is dramatic over a woman’s lifetime. Having worked less in formal employment, but having carried out much more unpaid work at home, many women will retire on lower pensions and see out their final years in poverty. Living an average of nearly 6 years longer than men, women over 65 are today more than one and a half times more likely to live in poverty than men in the same age bracket.Incorrect
Question 2 of 15
Who asked the jury if “they would let their wife or servants read this kind of book”?Correct
Yes, and on hearing Griffith-Jones’ question, the rest of the prosecution team started quoting Lawrence, or at least they were heard muttering “Oh f*ck”. Anyway, it turned out that the jury would let their wives, servants and anybody else read it, and the book was published shortly afterwards.
Since then, though it may not be related, girls outperform boys nearly everywhere in PISA’s reading tests, and between 2000 and 2012 the gender gap in reading performance in favour of girls widened in 11 countries. If you’d like to find out whether you’re smarter than a 15 year-old, try the PISA test.Incorrect
But he could have.
Question 3 of 15
Computer programming was invented by:Correct
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, wrote the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine, Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, around 1843. The Ada programming language is named in honour of her. Today however, only 20% of students in computer science courses are women and only 14% of patents are filed by women.
On the educationtoday blog, Marilyn Achiron looks at women’s absence from STEM occupations.Incorrect
You must restart the question to find the correct answer
Question 4 of 15
Which of the following was NOT used as an argument against women’s suffrage:Correct
That’s right, although that said, this argument or something similar probably was used, but we couldn’t find any documentary evidence. What we did find though, looking at OECD’s Women in Government data, is that in 2012, women accounted for only 26.8% of parliamentarians and 24.9% of ministers in OECD countries.Incorrect
But we had trouble finding a right answer for this question ourselves.
Question 5 of 15
Who said “There are some wonderful sports which you can do and perform to a very high level and I think those participating look absolutely radiant and very feminine such as ballet, gymnastics, cheerleading and even roller-skating.”Correct
Helen Grant’s statement, reported here, is at odds with the conclusions of a WHO report on Girls’ participation in physical activities and sport that “rather than focusing on ‘girl-friendly’ sports, we should be looking for ways to make sports and other physical activities more ‘child-friendly’ and ‘youth-friendly’.
Lack of physical activity is one of the causes of obesity, but OECD Fit not Fat study of the subject found that in most countries, boys have higher rates of overweight and obesity than girls. Girls tend to have higher rates in Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark), as well as in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Australia.Incorrect
It sounds like it should have been, but no.
Question 6 of 15
How is a school dropout from a poor family helping to tackle a major women’s health issue in India, improving girls’ educational enrollment and fighting rural poverty at the same time?Correct
As this BBC report explains, Arunachalam Muruganantham invented a simple machine rural women can use to make cheap sanitary pads. Poor menstrual hygiene is the cause of 70% of all reproductive diseases in India, and 23% of girls drop out of education once they start menstruating. The machine also provides jobs for rural women.Incorrect
Question 7 of 15
International Working Women’s Day was proposed in Copenhagen in 1910 by Clara Zetkin at the first international women’s conference organised by the Socialist International. The first National Woman’s Day was observed in the United States on 28 February 1909. The Socialist Party of America designated this day in honour of the 1908 garment workers’ strike in New York, where women protested against working conditions. The United Nations began celebrating International Women’s Day on 8 March 1975, during International Women’s Year.
The date is linked to the history of the day. International Women’s Day was marked for the first time (19 March) in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, where more than one million women and men attended rallies. In addition to the right to vote and to hold public office, they demanded women’s rights to work, to vocational training and to an end to discrimination on the job. In 1913-1914, as part of the peace movement, Russian women observed their first International Women’s Day on the last Sunday in February. Elsewhere in Europe, on or around 8 March of the following year, women held rallies either to protest the war or to express solidarity with other activists. In 1917, women in Russia again chose to protest and strike for ‘Bread and Peace’ on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar).Incorrect
You’ll find the right answer here.
Question 8 of 15
The PISA tests show that girls are usually more worried about solving a maths problem than boys, but in one language group tested, the boys are more anxious than the girls:Correct
Boys in all the Arabic-speaking countries tested reported “feeling helpless when doing a maths problem” more than girls maths, but they’re not alone – that’s the case in a quarter of the countries surveyed. However, boys in general ouperform girls in maths by the equivalent of three months in school. That doesn’t mean girls can’t do well: girls in Shanghai outperform boys in every other school system in the PISA at maths. You can find out more here.Incorrect
Question 9 of 15
The world’s biggest-ever survey on violence against women was published this week showing the extent of the problem in EU member countries. It shows that 33% of women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence since the age of 15 (62 million women); 22% have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner; 5% of all women have been raped; 43% have experienced some form of psychological violence by either a current or a previous partner; and 33% have childhood experiences of physical or sexual violence at the hands of an adult. Which country reports the highest rates of violence against women:Correct
One of the most surprising results is that countries with a good reputation on women’s issues come out worst in the survey. In Denmark 52% of women report suffering physical or sexual violence, with Finland (47%), and Sweden (46%) coming second and third. However, the report’s authors suggest five explanations for observed differences between countries which require further exploration:
1) The extent to which it is culturally acceptable to talk to other people about experiences of violence against women, including to survey interviewers.
2) Higher levels of gender equality could lead to higher levels of disclosure about violence against women, as incidents of violence against women are more likely to be openly addressed and challenged in societies with greater equality.
3) Women’s exposure to risk factors for violence can be examined at the Member State level with respect to factors that might increase exposure to violence, such as patterns in employment (working outside the home) as well as socialisation and lifestyle patterns (going out or dating).
4) Differences between countries in overall levels of violent crime, which need to be examined alongside findings on violence against women. For example, a greater degree of urbanisation in a country is generally related to higher crime rates.
5) As there is evidence, including in this survey, of a relationship between perpetrators’ drinking habits and women’s experiences of domestic violence, different drinking patterns in Member States may help to explain certain aspects of violence against women.Incorrect
The results are surprising, and clicking on the correct answer (Denmark) will show you fuller details and explanations. Unfortunately, the software doesn’t allow you simply to redo the question, you have to start the quiz again.
Question 10 of 15
In which country do men spend the most time eating, sleeping and making themselves look pretty?Correct
Italian men spend almost half the day (11 hours and 37 minutes) looking after themselves according to OECD data on time spent on personal care. And in a dramatic announcement when the results became known, the OECD also revealed that overall, women spend more time than men on unpaid work like shopping or housework. Turkish women spend the most time doing unpaid work at 377 minutes a day, while Korean men are either astonishingly efficient or something else, since they only spend45 minutes.Incorrect
They may be exceptionally well-dressed, well-fed, and rested, but they’re not the world champions.
Question 11 of 15
In an OECD survey of government agencies, eighteen responding agencies agreed that financial literacy was an important policy issue in their country, four disagreed and two did not know. Similarly, most also agreed that gender equality was an important policy issue in their country: seventeen agreed, two disagreed and four did not know. How many of them agreed that the need to address the financial literacy of women and girls was an important issue?Correct
Only eight respondents agreed that the need to address the financial literacy of women and girls was an important policy issue, while twelve disagreed and four did not know. The OECD gives developing countries advice on “policy coherence“. Maybe it’s time to broaden the scope.Incorrect
The results show that women have more difficulty in men with basic financial operations like calculating interest. They also show that many governments have trouble adding one policy to another.
Question 12 of 15
What is the main cause of death of women worldwide?Correct
Globally, cardiovascular disease, often thought to be a “male” problem, is the number one killer of women. Breast cancer is the leading cancer killer among women aged 20–59 years worldwide.
Ischaemic heart disease kills 96 women per 100,000 population (the same as strokes), and hypertensive heart disease another 17.
As you’d expect, there are big differences depending on income level. In low-income countries for example major killers are often absent from the top ten causes of female deaths in other places. The main causes of death in the poorest countries are lower respiratory infections (96 per 100,000 population), followed by HIV/AIDS (74) and diarrheal diseases (71). If added together, the biggest killer would be conditions linked to pregnancy and childbirth, with preterm birth complications accounting for a death rate of 49 per 100,000), maternal conditions 26, and birth asphyxia and birth trauma 25.Incorrect
In some ways this a trick question since it asks about the global trend, while cause of death is heavily influenced by factors such as age group and development status of the country, and diseases that are major killers for one set of the population are far less important or practically non-existent elsewhere. The WHO provides full details here.
Question 13 of 15
Who’s more satisfied with their life, men or women?Correct
There doesn’t seem to be much difference. The OECD carried out a survey using a scale called the Cantril ladder which asks people to rate their general satisfaction with life on a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being the most satisfied. Although there is large variation across countries – with the gap between countries with the highest satisfaction and those with the lowest being approximately 3 points on the scale – gender doesn’t seem to play a major role in shaping people’s subjective evaluation of their own lives. Significant differences by gender are found only for employment and health status, which are stronger drivers of life satisfaction for women than they are for men. And in more news, it turns out that people who are rich and healthy are more satisfied than those who are poor and sick. Read all about it here.
Oh, and in case you’re wondering, people in sunny South Africa are the most miserable, while those in gloomy Norway are the most cheerful.Incorrect
That may be true in your circle, but it’s not the case generally.
Question 14 of 15
What’s the worst country to be a woman in according to the World Economic Forum’s 2013 Global Gender Gap, “designed to measure gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in individual countries rather than the actual levels of the available resources and opportunities in those countries […] in order to make the Global Gender Gap Index independent from the countries’ levels of development.”?Correct
Yemen comes last of the 136 countries ranked by the World Economic Forum according to “gender gaps on economic, political, education and health criteria”. Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden occupy the first four places, and OECD countries take eight out of the top ten, with the Philippines coming in at number 5 and Nicaragua at 10.
The spoof magazine cover is one of three produced by Catapult, a US-based crowdfunding site for International Women’s Day. If you click on the image, you’ll see the full story in The Guardian. Among the statistics quoted are these:
14m girls — some as young as eight years old — will be married against their will in 2014.
An estimated 1.2m children are trafficked into slavery each year; 80% are girls.
In New York City, the average age at which a girl first becomes a victim of commercial sexual exploitation is 13.Incorrect
The World Economic Forum doesn’t agree with you.
Question 15 of 15
South Africa’s Sexual Violence Research Initiative has produced a briefing paper on Modifying Gender Role Stereotypes in Children. It says that: “Parents convey expectations of gender role conformity starting in infancy , with one study finding that parents hold gender-typed expectations of their sons and daughters in the first 24 hours following birth. Another found that children show an awareness of their parents’ communication about gender roles from two to two-and-a-half years of age, with the early provision of gender-differentiated toy selection typically reflecting parental stereotypes”Incorrect
You seem to have misheard. Listen more closely.
A friend has just bought glittery pink shoes for her sister’s children. Can you guess whether they’re boys or girls? Of course you can! Pink is for girls (and so is glittery). But that wasn’t always the case. In 1918, Earnshaw’s Infants’ Department (a magazine for retail professionals) explained that “The generally accepted rule is pink for the boys, and blue for the girls. The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.”
That’s why the Virgin Mary wears blue, as do Cinderella and Snow White in Disney’s 1950 and 1937 cartoons. On a far more sinister note, the Nazis made male homosexuals wear pink triangles, since the colour’s masculine connotations associated it with a preference for men. (Lesbians wore the black triangle of “asocials”, a group that included women who had had abortions and prostitutes).
You can find out more about when pink became girly in Jeanne Maglaty’s article for the Smithsonian. The point is, it happened recently and for reasons that are linked to commerce and other social behaviours, not genetics. Stereotyping, whether positive or negative, is insidious, helping to reinforce the idea that some kinds of discrimination and oppression are somehow “natural” – the mother not the father should stay at home to look after a sick child because women are better carers, for instance. Then if you have to choose between a man and a woman for a promotion you can say objectively that a man will be more available and take less time off.
Aaron Kay of Duke University and his colleagues have just published the results of an experimental study of how stereotypes influence judgement. They found that people exposed to positive stereotypes towards African Americans were more likely to apply negative stereotypes too, and to believe in biological explanations of group differences.
Combating stereotypes will involve “changing norms, culture, mindsets, and attitudes” as it says in the introduction to a session at today’s OECD Gender Forum on “Closing the gender gap”. The main theme of the conference is the economy, and the main argument is that discriminating against women is not only immoral, it’s a waste of money. Government ministers, business leaders and members of civil society will be talking about what they should do to “achieve gender equality in economic opportunities”.
The picture in the top left corner of this article is a good summary of the scale of the task. It’s the cover of the book being launched at today’s meeting and illustrates the fact that when you establish a dichotomy, you imply a hierarchy. Try it with some neutral-sounding pairs to begin with: above-below; written-spoken; inside-outside. Now have look at the book and frame what you see in terms of word couples. There are three adult males and three female children. The men are higher up. The one black person of the six is lower down. One of the men is either holding out a helping hand or warning the one girl actually doing anything that the ladder she’s using to bridge the gap is too short.
Most of the OECD recommendations on what to do are consensual (address cultural barriers, provide affordable, good-quality childcare for all parents…) but I imagine there’ll be a lively debate around others, including what some see as flagship reforms. For example, the Financial Times reported in September that many businesses and some governments oppose EU plans to have quotas of women directors on the boards of listed companies. Katja Hall, chief policy director at the CBI employers’ group, backed the UK government’s line, saying: “We are not convinced that EU quotas will be anything other than a token gesture.” Others argue that women at the top would act just the same as their male colleagues anyway and that for somebody losing their job, knowing there was a woman’s touch to getting fired isn’t any comfort.
In other words, the division between men and women is one of many in our society and any victory in the fight against sexual discrimination will only be partial if it’s achieved in isolation from efforts to overcome other forms of inequality.