Today’s post is contributed by Jon Lomoy, Director of the OECD’s Development Co-operation Directorate, as part of our coverage of the Millennium Development Goals Summit taking place in New York. Click on the logo to go to the Summit website.
With only a few years left to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by their 2015 target date, world leaders are looking for strategies to accelerate progress. So is there a miracle solution? How about investing in women and girls? UNDP Administrator Helen Clark has called this the “breakthrough strategy for achieving the MDGs”.
It seems fair to argue that without a great leap forward towards empowering women and girls, none of the MDGs will be achieved. On the other hand, focusing on four key areas could have tremendous catalytic and multiplier effects.
1. Keep girls in school
Studies have shown that women with even a few years of primary education have better economic prospects, fewer and healthier children, and more likelihood of ensuring that their own children go to school. Development would be tremendously accelerated, then, if girls were able to complete a quality secondary education. Adolescence is a critical turning point for girls. With a secondary education, they are better equipped to make informed choices about their lives. But all too often, girls are married young or are taken out of school to care for their brothers and sisters or to work to help support themselves and their families.
Removing school fees and providing financial incentives can help girls to attend school, as can building schools closer to remote communities, ensuring that schools have quality teachers and adequate sanitary facilities, and making them safe places for girls.
2. Urgently improve reproductive health, including access to family planning services
MDG 5 – improving maternal health – is the MDG that is most off-track, with a devastating effect on women’s lives and those of their children. Laws and practices limit women’s control over their sexual and reproductive options, severely compromising their autonomy and equality – as well as their own and their children’s health. Meeting a woman’s need for sexual and reproductive health services, on the other hand, increases her chances of finishing her education, and thereby breaking out of poverty.
It is time to put voluntary family planning back on the development agenda. Donor funding for family planning has been declining since the mid-1990s and over the same period, progress on maternal health has stalled.
3. Ensure that productive and financial assets are in the hands of women (not just microcredit!)
Women’s economic participation, and their ownership and control over productive assets, speed up development, helping to overcome poverty, reduce inequalities, and improve children’s nutrition, health, and school attendance.
Land – a fundamental productive asset – is also important as collateral for securing finance and credit. Yet although women’s role in food production is critical in many developing countries, they continue to have less access to land, fertilisers, seeds, credit and extension services than men. More equitable access to these resources would make agriculture more efficient in promoting shared economic growth, reducing poverty and improving food security.
The success of microcredit schemes has received much international acclaim, and rightly so. Nonetheless, women need access to the full range of credit, banking and financial services to develop their land and their businesses. In many countries, serious legal, cultural and social barriers limit this access.
4. Identify and support women leaders at all levels
Too often, women are viewed as vulnerable victims rather than as agents of change in their families, communities and countries. Why is this, when women such as President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and other women political leaders in Liberia are setting an example by rebuilding their country? When inspirational women leaders are changing their communities at the grassroots level every day? Thelma Awori, who has researched African rural women leaders, has found that while women leaders are everywhere – bringing change to their communities and to their families, passing on to others the capacity to aspire – they are invisible.
As a number of developed countries have found over time, increasing the voice and participation of women in politics is essential for advancing issues of importance to women, with benefits for both women and men. Nonetheless, women comprise only 18.9 per cent of the world’s legislators – far from the thirty per cent target of the 1995 UN’s Women’s Conference in Beijing.
What needs to change?
It is time to act, not just talk – to back up political promises with the investments and resources needed to do the job. The MDGs are a global compact – a collective set of political commitments – and gender equality and women’s empowerment are prerequisites for achieving them all.
- It is time to increase targeted investments in women and girls, focusing on areas that have proven to have a catalytic impact on poverty, development and inequalities.
- It is time to confront and overcome cultural and social norms that hold back women and girls: discrimination and prejudice on the basis of sex; social exclusion because of ethnicity, race or caste.
- It is time for gender-responsive public financial management systems to measure and monitor progress – whether women and girls have access to the health services, education, business advice and agricultural extension they need; whether they have clean water and decent work and pay; whether they are getting the benefits to which they are entitled – and identify gaps so that investments can be directed to the right people, in the right places, at the right time.
- It is time to gather evidence about what works. Recording and measuring multiplier effects is an operational challenge for the future and will be under the microscope as donors and developing countries prepare for the 4thHigh Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Korea, 2011.
- It is time to improve countries’ capacity to collect sex-disaggregated data. At the same time, it is important to act on the data already available – we have failed to act on what we know.
- It is time to accurately track the proportion and coverage of aid focussed on achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment, including investments by multilateral agencies. In 2010, donor countries will decide on their financial contributions to the sixteenth replenishment of the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) for 2011-2014. Mainstreaming gender equality is one of the themes for IDA16. This could help to multiply resources available for women’s empowerment and the achievement of all the MDGs in the poorest countries.
As world leaders gather in New York to take stock of our collective commitment to the world’s poorest, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría asks: can they congratulate themselves for a job well-done?
In 2000, leaders of 189 countries made a historic commitment to end poverty by 2015. Since then, the gains have been uneven. Not surprisingly, war-torn and politically unstable countries are furthest away from reaching the MDGs: on average 40 – 60% behind. And the economic and food crises of the past few years, combined with the threat of climate change, bring further challenges that may set us back even further.
Although we have seen remarkable progress in some areas, women still have little say in many countries, with too many mothers and their children ill and dying. In sub-Saharan Africa people are poorer than ever. We must build a future of expanded opportunity for all. It is morally unacceptable and economically irrational that in sub-Saharan Africa 15 % of children die under the age of 5 or that only 1 out of every 3 children goes to secondary school. One solution – investment in women and girls’ education yields the highest returns of all development investments. It improves their economic, legal and political empowerment, reducing maternal mortality, and ensuring higher household incomes with better educated and healthier children.
Absent a major push in the next five years, we will fail to meet our commitment to the world’s poorest. We at the OECD feel a special responsibility towards the MDGs. Their genesis was our 1996 International Development Goals, which were meant to crystallize international aid commitments into a concrete set of development objectives that could be measured and monitored.
To accelerate progress and reach the goals, everyone must do their part – developing countries, their partners and the international community as a whole. Many developing countries are working to reform political and economic governance and make a collective commitment to greater peace and security. And more must make the effort. Given the particular challenges in fragile states, I am encouraged by the new g7+, a group of 13 countries in various stages of fragility who are sharing experience and good practices in resolving conflict.
Their leaders know they must increase domestic revenue – that tax receipts provide a predictable fiscal environment to promote growth and ward off aid dependence. In Malawi, tax compliant businesses are awarded with certificates which allow them access to assistance from revenue officers and are seen by banks as indicators of credit worthiness. The move has pushed tax revenues from 9% in 1998 to almost 15% in 2005. Effective tax systems also discourage the leakage of scarce domestic resources through corruption, illicit financial flows, and tax evasion. The agreement by 13 countries in 2009 to establish the African Tax Administration Forum is a particularly promising development.
Wealthy countries are trying to complement these efforts by taking stronger action in key areas such as tax and illicit capital flows, and resisting protectionism by moving forward on multilateral trade liberalisation.
While aid is not a panacea, it is an important catalyst for development. Since 2000, aid from OECD donors has risen by 55%. Though there has been some slippage of late. New players – emerging donors, philanthropic organisations, special purpose funding initiatives, innovative financing instruments and sovereign wealth funds, have created new sources of development finance. Nevertheless, OECD countries need to meet their aid targets if we are serious about reducing poverty. And we must ensure that aid improves the lives of those who need it most. That will be the focus of the Fourth OECD High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, to take place in Korea next year. The Forum is a key element in delivering on MDG-8 by building ‘a global partnership for development’.
Last but not least, one should also not forget climate change, with possible extreme weather which can ruin crops, damage infrastructure and degrade natural resources. The effects of climate change are felt the most by the poorest, which may see their livelihoods under threat. The entire international community – developed and developing countries – must agree to reduce carbon emissions. Wealthy countries, in particular, must allocate substantial and predictable funding to enable poor countries to cope with the impact of climate change. Developing International Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a solution for biodiversity and for the establishment of environmentally sound practices in developing countries.
The OECD is working with the full range of partners to catalyse political will and promote international best practice. Together we can meet our commitment to the world’s poorest, and achieve the MDGs by 2015.